The Top Female Pheromones
Let us talk about top female pheromones.
Female opponents: time preference P = 0.012; sniffing preference P = 0.004; marking preference P= 0.004). This shows that they could discriminate between the scent marks of two adults of the same sex (Epple, '1973a). The preference for the marks of an opponent was shown when the scent was presented on the day of the encounter between the subjects and the donor.
However, it was also shown when the pheromone subjects were tested three or more days following the most recent introduction of the opponent pheromone. This not only shows that the monkeys can remember the scent of other pheromonal individuals for several days, but also controls for the possibility that the subjects preferred the scent of their recent opponent because it was characteristic for a stressed animal rather than because of its individual quality (Epple 1973a). Preli- minary results obtained from tests in which the subjects received a choice of 0.4 ml urine samples rather than the intact scent marks produced by the donors indicate that urine alone does not contain enough information on the individual to motivate the preference shown for intact marks (Epple, unpublished data). Check out http://www.acimeksikabiberhapi.com/small-doses-of-pherazone.
3) In a third experiment, the marmosets were offered the choice between a wooden perch marked by a dominant male and a perch carrying the odor of a submissive male, both unknown to the subjects. The subjects sniffed and scent marked the perches carrying the odor of dominant males significantly more fre- quently than those carrying the pheromonal odor of submissive males (P = 0.005). During the first five minutes of testing, they also had a time preference for the scent of dominant males (P: 0.0025) but this preference did not persist throughout the whole test period of 15 minutes (Epple 1973a). Learn more at http://www.iktak.net/project/94.
These results indicate that scent marks of males of different social status contain some information that enabled the subjects to discriminate between them. However, this information is likely to be based on the quantity of the scent rather on its quality. Dominant males and dominant females scent mark more frequently than submissive individuals (Epple, 1970 and unpublished data). This possibly resulted in a larger amount of odorous material on the perches marked by the dominant donors, causing the subjects to prefer them. Further pheromone experiments are necessary to check out this possibility.
The studies reviewed above demonstrate that the scent marks of Saguinus fuscicollis are complex mixtures of several body products which carry information on the sex, the identity and the social status of the individual. Further research will doubtlessly show that these are not the only messages contained in the marks. Observational data and some pilot experiments, for instance, indicate that the marks of females in estrus also contain sexual attractants.
The reproductive condition of the female pheromone
The transmission of messages on the reproductive condition of the female seems to be extremely widespread among primates. This apparently is even the case in Old World monkeys and apes where we have otherwise so little evidence of chemical con.munication (c.f. Michael 1969).