Application of pheromones in mammals
Pheromones are considerably more moths than those at low levels probably because of the stratified temperatures which facilitated ﬂying at the higher levels.
22. 9.3. Prospects for Pheromones Success
Based on preliminary field testing it appears that sex pheromones will be useful for insect detection and survey purposes, but their use alone as a control measure is not promising unless low numbers of insects are involved. Large numbers of small inexpensive pheromone traps distributed throughout food processing plants and warehouses may be particularly useful in locating sites of infestation, so that con- trol measures might be concentrated in areas of need. The use of pheromones to induce confusion and habituation in males shows promise. However, the large quantities of pheromone involved present several problems. For example, insects may be attracted from outside the food plant or warehouse. The commodities would probably absorb the pheromone and actually attract insects to them after leaving the warehouse and passing through the marketing channels. Unwanted pheromone residues are another potential problem area which is totally uninvestigated. Learn more about human pheromones at http://sundowndivers.org/?p=82
However, pheromones may soon be used in another way. They may enhance the effectiveness of existing light traps and food bait traps, particularly those of a corrugated construction which are favored by insects as pupation, oviposition, and hiding sites. Insecticides, sticky compounds or insect pathogens in combination with pheromones could also enhance the effectiveness of the pheromone traps. Pheromones could be used to bring the males to a source of disease, which they subsequently spread by mating with females. Both sexes would carry the disease to potential infestation sites and the disease could also spread when the infected insects died and were consumed by young larvae.
The basic promise of pheromone research is that its application to insect control will make it possible to reduce both our use of pesticides and our reliance on this method of control. Whatever the immediate use, pheromone research has encouraged study of insect behavior and thus will inevitably produce sounder approaches to insect control. Check out pheromones at
Application of pheromones in mammals
Most of the knowledge or assumptions about applications of pheromones in mammals are still at a pre-scientific stage. For lack of work with true pheromones, this review will also cover interspecific odors. The main possibilities for using intra- and interspecific odors are in trapping, crop protection, wildlife management, and animal husbandry. Learn more at https://jail6letter.wordpress.com/2015/12/19/pheromone-stages/
Trappers’ tales about large distances over which coyotes, for instance, are attracted to artiﬁcial ‘scent posts’, seem exaggerated. Pirnlott et al. (1969) observed packs of wolves passing within 10 In of experimental scent posts without investigating them. However, coyotes have been shown to visit experimental posts treated with coyote urine four to ﬁve times as often as blanks (Linhart, personal communication). Learn about the best pheromones for men and women.
For many centuries trappers have used concoctions containing urine and scent gland material, among other things, to attract and trap animals like beavers or coyotes. Information on the composition of the ‘attractants’ was (and is) tradi- tionally secret or at least not documented, and the ‘success rate’ has mostly remained a matter of personal opinion. Aleksiuk (1968) caught beavers (Castor canaden- sis)* with a mixture of castoreum (a product of preputial glands) from freshly killed beavers, glycerin and anise oil. For coyotes (Canis latrans), urine, gall and anal glands of coyotes are mixed with glycerine. For foxes, fox urine, zinc valeriate and beaver castor are used, while for a number of canids, putreﬁed ﬁsh with glycerine and beaver castor are in use (Taber and Cowan 1969).